Formatting Instructions


Use Times Roman typeface or an equivalent, preferably 10-point type with 12-point spacing between lines.


Type the title in all capital letters, centered. Skip four lines, then begin author information.

Author and affiliation

Center. List author’s name, affiliation, street address/box number, city-state-zip, and telephone number.


Type “ABSTRACT” three lines below address, all capitals, at left margin. Skip a line, then begin abstract.


Indent each paragraph 1/4 inches, single space text in two-column format. Double space between paragraphs.


If an acronym is used more than once, define it at first use followed by the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses then use the acronym from that point, e.g., liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or General Electric (GE).


Type on a separate line in the following style:



Indicate each footnote reference by a superscript lowercase letter, without parentheses, outside any period and comma. Type the footnote at the bottom of the column in which the citation appears, separated from the text by solid line, 1 inch in length.


Type all equations. If your printer does not have the necessary mathematical symbols, thus necessiating handwritten symbols, letter neatly in black ink (not lead pencil or blue ink). Displayed formulas should have one line of space above and below. Type equation numbers in arabic numerals in parentheses, flush with the right margin. Number displayed equations consecutively. Long tables should be treated as illustrations.

Reference Citation

All references should be cited in the text in numerical order as a superscript number outside any punctuation. Do not cite a reference next to a number as it may be read as an exponent.


Appendixes should precede the acknowledgments.


Nomenclature should precede the references.


All acknowledgments for technical and financial support should go between the nomenclature and references.


List references at the end of the paper, according to their first use in the paper. Include the following information (as applicable).

For a book: author(s), book title (underlined or italic, page and chapter numbers, publisher, city, year.

For a journal: author(s), paper title in quotes, journal name (underlined or italic), volume and issue numbers, page numbers (inclusive), year.

For a proceedings paper or chapter in an edited book: author(s), paper or chapter title in quotes, volume title (underlined or italic, editors, volume number (if applicable), page numbers (inclusive), publisher, city, year.